The Sociological Quarterly
This article is a conversation analytic investigation of an emergency service call in which a hostage in a school shooting played a dual role during the ongoing emergency—the role of 911 caller and the role of de facto crisis negotiator. The analysis will show how the caller used techniques such as footing shifts, tone of voice shifts, self-disclosure, and active listening techniques (including continuers, questions, repeats, and paraphrases) to successfully keep the conflict from escalating, maintain the autonomy of the intruder, and negotiate his surrender while working in collaboration with the 911 call taker.
Garcia, Angela, 2017. What Went Right: Interactional Strategies for Managing Crisis Negotiations during an Emergency Service Call, The Sociological Quarterly.